As we quickly pass by the third year that the Discov3ry paste extruder has been adding functionality to the 3D printing market (and approach Structur3d Printing's 5th birthday!) we wanted to share a little bit about what our materials developers are doing with it.

Over the years, I have been collecting different journal publications, conference proceedings, meetings, patents, and even books that have either used or mentioned the Discov3ry Extruder.  We are currently published in at least 16 publications that have directly used the Discov3ry Extruder to advance research (that's exciting) and have been mentioned in about 16 more (including 3D printing for Dummies!).

I will be sharing my entire collection with you over the following months. And of course, if you are familiar with anything I may have missed, please reach out to me or the team. You can reach us any time at hello@(our URL).io, or reach out on Twitter or Facebook.

Without further ado, here are 9 academic journal publications where the Discov3ry was used in the experimentation.  The publications range from International Journal on Food System Dynamics to Nature Scientific Reports.  Here they are in reverse chronological order. I have included the abstract, keywords, and available images, but I encourage you to get a copy of the full papers through your institution or by sending an email to the corresponding authors (also linked through the lead authors name below).

 

Journal Publications:

[1] Mechanically Robust, Ultraelastic Hierarchical Foam with Tunable Properties via 3D Printing.
Chen, Q., Cao, P.-F., & Advincula, R. C. (2018). Advanced Functional Materials. [link]

ABSTRACT: A mechanically robust, ultraelastic foam with controlled multiscale especially for those with special internal architectures and tunable mechanical/conductive performance is fabricated morphologies and architectures. Demands via 3D printing. Hierarchical porosity, including both macro- and microscaled for formulating new functional materials pores, are produced by the combination of direct ink writing (DIW), acid that are readily printable are rising rapidly etching, and phase inversion. The thixotropic inks in DIW are formulated by driven by the expansion of the application fields. 3D printing of elastic foam, a simple one-pot process to disperse duo nanoparticles (nanoclay and silica which is appealing in lots of industrial nanoparticles) in a polyurethane suspension. The resulting lightweight foam fields, is still challenging due to the diffi- exhibits tailorable mechanical strength, unprecedented elasticity (standing culty of forming internal porous structure over 1000 compression cycles), and remarkable robustness (rapidly and using existing printing techniques. fully recover after a load more than 20 000 times of its own weight). Surface Foams are widely applied in numerous fields owning to their special internal coating of carbon nanotubes yields a conductive elastic foam that can be porous morphology offering distinctive used as piezoresistivity sensor with high sensitivity. For the first time, this characteristics. Among them, elastic strategy achieves 3D printing of elastic foam with controlled multilevel 3D foams are especially attractive due to structures and mechanical/conductive properties. Moreover, the facile ink their broad industrial applications, such preparation method can be utilized to fabricate foams of various materials as flexible sensors, tissue engineering, with desirable performance via 3D printing.

KEYWORDS: controllable performance; direct ink writing; hierarchical porosity; stress sensing; ultraelastic foams

 

[2] Food Futures and 3D Printing: Strategic Market Foresight and the Case of Structur3D.
Charlebois, S., & Juhasz, M. (2018). International Journal on Food System Dynamics, 9(2), 138–148. [link]

ABSTRACT: Our case study analyses 3D Printing and its contribution to food innovation. Our examination uses strategic foresight as a knowledge transfer tool for food industry planning. As a force for change, customization is a leading characteristic of 3D food printing in user-centred design. Broader societal and economic pressures for sustainability, human health and nutrition can be addressed by 3D food printing with bioplastics, recycling, and product customization catered to distinct market demographic segments. In terms of scale and competition, some 3D food printing companies will focus on customization at scales for purposes. At regional or national authority levels, innovative policies will serve vital incentive catalysts and support structures. Our case study looks at Structur3d, a Kitchener-Waterloo-based company, within a larger world of 3D printing innovation, science, and processing. We examine Structur3d in the context of food innovation at-large within an ecosystem of economic change and disruption, and consider the evolution of Canadian food business, manufacturing strategy and public policy in a global economy to meet rapidly changing societal needs in engineering, capital, material science, and action planning.

KEYWORDS: 3D food printing; food processing; innovation; market development; strategic foresight

 

[3] Development of 3D printing technology for the manufacture of flexible electric double-layer capacitors.
Areir, M., Xu, Y., Harrison, D., Fyson, J., & Zhang, R. (2018). Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 33(8), 905–911. [link]

ABSTRACT: This study presents a novel process and manufacturing system for the fabrication of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) as energy storage devices. It shows an approach for printing multilayer EDLC components using 3D printing technology. This process allows layers of activated carbon (AC) slurry, gel electrolyte, and composite solid filaments to be printed with high precision. The study describes the detailed process of deposition of the AC and gel electrolyte using the dual nozzle system. The performance of the flexible EDLCs manufactured by 3D printing in a rectilinear infill pattern has been investigated. It describes the energy storage performance of the printed supercapacitors in relation to the differences in thickness of the AC printed layers and the differences in density of gel electrolyte. A supercapacitor based on printed AC and composite materials displays a specific capacitance of 38.5 mF g?1 when measured at a potential rate change of 20 mV / s and a current density of 0.136 A / g. The highest energy density value for the flexible EDLC was 0.019 Wh / kg and power density of 165.0 W / kg in 1.6 M H2SO4/PVA gel electrolyte.

KEYWORDS: 3D printing; carbon; characterization; composite; electrochemical; electrolyte; flexible; supercapacitor

 

[4] 3D printed scaffolds with gradient porosity based on a cellulose nanocrystal hydrogel.
Sultan, S., & Mathew, A. P. (2018). Nanoscale, 10(9), 4421–4431. [link]

ABSTRACT: 3-Dimensional (3D) printing provides a unique methodology for the customization of biomedical scaffolds with respect to size, shape, pore structure and pore orientation useful for tissue repair and regeneration. 3D printing was used to fabricate fully bio-based porous scaffolds of a double crosslinked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) from a hydrogel ink of sodium alginate and gelatin (SA/G) reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). CNCs provided favorable rheological properties required for 3D printing. The 3D printed scaffolds were crosslinked sequentially via covalent and ionic reactions resulting in dimensionally stable hydrogel scaffolds with pore sizes of 80–2125 µm and nanoscaled pore wall roughness (visible from scanning electron microscopy) favorable for cell interaction. The 2D wide angle X-ray scattering studies showed that the nanocrystals orient preferably in the printing direction; the degree of orientation varied between 61–76%. The 3D printing pathways were optimised successfully to achieve 3-dimensional scaffolds (Z axis up to 20 mm) with uniform as well as gradient pore structures. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D printing in developing bio-based scaffolds with controlled pore sizes, gradient pore structures and alignment of nanocrystals for optimal tissue regeneration.

KEYWORDS

[5]  Nozzle Shape Guided Filler Orientation in 3D Printed Photo-curable Nanocomposites.
Kim, T., Trangkanukulkij, R., & Kim, W. S. (2018). Nature Scientific Reports, 8(1), 3805. [link]

ABSTRACT: Here, we report guided orientation of silver nanowires (AgNWs) in extruded patterns with photo-curable 3D printing technology. A printable conductive composite material composed of polymer matrix and silver nanowires shows significantly varied electrical properties depending on the cross-sectional shape of printing nozzles: flat or circular. The composite is designed to have highly conductive AgNWs and a dielectric polymer matrix like photo-curable methacrylate resin. The dielectric permittivity of photo-curable composite resin with 1.6 vol. % of AgNWs printed through a circular nozzle showed 27. However, the same resin showed much lower permittivity with 20 when it is printed with a flat nozzle. The cross-sectional sample morphology shows that AgNWs printed with a circular nozzle are aligned, and AgNWs printed with a flat nozzle are randomly distributed. A computational simulation of paste extrusion with two different nozzle shapes showed clearly different fluidic velocities at the nozzle exit, which contributes to different fiber orientation in printed samples. A radio frequency identification sensor is fabricated with 3D printed composite using a flat nozzle for the demonstration of AgNW based 3D printed conductor.

KEYWORDS: Electrical and electronic engineering; Electronic devices

 

[6] A study of 3D printed active carbon electrode for the manufacture of electric double-layer capacitors.
Areir, M., Xu, Y., Zhang, R., Harrison, D., Fyson, J., & Pei, E. (2017). Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 25, 351–356. [link]

ABSTRACT: This paper reports an experimental investigation of the potential for printing selected commercially available activated carbon (AC) onto a flexible fabric. A dual nozzle deposition system was used based on fused deposition modelling (FDM) solid-based process. This is capable of extruding an AC slurry for making Electric Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLCs). We used an adaptive slicing approach which allows us to modify the layer thickness and deposit a controlled amount of AC materials with an accurate orientation to form predetermined tracks. Several forms of AC slurry were difficult to deposit because of the carbon particle size and acid concentration. This work discusses how the supercapacitor behaves in relation to the printed AC layers. The effects of the fabrication processes on the AC electrodes were further investigated. FDM/Paste material deposition could provide a method for making several functional elements in one process, for example printing piezoelectric materials and energy storage for smart products. The major contribution of this work is an approach for printing multilayer AC as electrodes by using 3D printing technology. The 3D printing technology allows the manufacture of complex internal patterns accurately, and provides the ability to build various thicknesses of layers in a fast and smooth operation.

KEYWORDS: Activated carbon; 3D printing technology; Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs); Energy storage system; Flexible composite material

 

[7] A study of 3D printed flexible supercapacitors onto silicone rubber substrates.
Areir, M., Xu, Y., Harrison, D., & Fyson, J. (2017). Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 28(23), 18254–18261. [link]

ABSTRACT: The rapid development of flexible energy storage devices is crucial for various electronics industries. Highly flexible electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) can be manufactured by 3D printing technology. It was a great challenge to fabricate multiple material layers of the EDLC in one rapid and accurate deposition event. The fabricated structures were composed of twelve electrodes which could be configured in a number of different ways in one block module. This work aims to investigate the perfor- mance of the flexible EDLCs manufactured by 3D printing in a honeycomb pattern. The EDLC cells were fabricated using a slurry made from commercial activated carbon (AC) and a gel electrolyte deposited on a transparent silicone sub- strate. The flexible EDLCs structures can be used in flexible electronics with different patterns and sizes using 3D printer and can be applied to many applications such as wearable technology.

KEYWORDS: Activated carbon; 3D printing technology; Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs); Energy storage system; Flexible composite material

 

[8] Beyond the concepts of nanocomposite and 3D printing: PVA and nanodiamonds for layer-by-layer additive manufacturing.
Angjellari, M., Tamburri, E., Montaina, L., Natali, M., Passeri, D., Rossi, M., & Terranova, M. L. (2017). Materials & Design, 119, 12–21. [link]

ABSTRACT: The use of dispersions of poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA and detonation nanodiamond (DND) as novel inks for 3D printing of variously shaped objects using a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing method is reported. In parallel with the nanocomposites preparation, we designed a 3D printing apparatus and settled protocols for the shaping of hybrid materials, choosing PVA-DND inks as a model system to test the performances of the 3D apparatus. Along with material design and preparation, we discuss the main factors influencing the quality of the final printed objects and enlighten the importance of the matching between the chemical/physical properties of the materials to be extruded and the characteristics of the 3D printer. The thermal and mechanical properties of the printed systems have been tested by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy. The analysis of the mechanical properties of the 3D printed objects evidenced, for 0.5%w/w, 1%w and 5%w DND-loaded nanocomposites, values of mean indentation modulus that are 22%, 44% and 200% higher, respectively, than that of the unloaded PVA. The results of the present research, indicate that an appropriate methodology is able to print PVA-DND nanocomposites in well-defined and shaped structures, suitable for a variety of possible applications.

KEYWORDS: Additive manufacturing; 3D printer; Detonation nanodiamond; PVA; Nanocomposites; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties

 

[9] 3D printing of highly flexible supercapacitor designed for wearable energy storage.
Areir, M., Xu, Y., Harrison, D., & Fyson, J. (2017). Materials Science and Engineering: B, 226, 29–38. [link]

ABSTRACT: The use of dispersions of poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA and detonation nanodiamond (DND) as novel inks for 3D printing of variously shaped objects using a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing method is reported. In parallel with the nanocomposites preparation, we designed a 3D printing apparatus and settled protocols for the shaping of hybrid materials, choosing PVA-DND inks as a model system to test the performances of the 3D apparatus. Along with material design and preparation, we discuss the main factors influencing the quality of the final printed objects and enlighten the importance of the matching between the chemical/physical properties of the materials to be extruded and the characteristics of the 3D printer. The thermal and mechanical properties of the printed systems have been tested by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy. The analysis of the mechanical properties of the 3D printed objects evidenced, for 0.5%w/w, 1%w and 5%w DND-loaded nanocomposites, values of mean indentation modulus that are 22%, 44% and 200% higher, respectively, than that of the unloaded PVA. The results of the present research, indicate that an appropriate methodology is able to print PVA-DND nanocomposites in well-defined and shaped structures, suitable for a variety of possible applications.

KEYWORDS: 3D printing technology; Electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs); Flexible supercapacitor; Wearable energy storage; Bending test

References:

  1. Chen, Q., Cao, P.-F., & Advincula, R. C. (2018). Mechanically Robust, Ultraelastic Hierarchical Foam with Tunable Properties via 3D Printing. Advanced Functional Materials, 28(21), 1800631. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201800631
  2. Charlebois, S., & Juhasz, M. (2018). Food Futures and 3D Printing: Strategic Market Foresight and the Case of Structur3D. International Journal on Food System Dynamics, 9(2), 138–148. https://doi.org/10.18461/ijfsd.v9i2.923
  3. Areir, M., Xu, Y., Harrison, D., Fyson, J., & Zhang, R. (2018). Development of 3D printing technology for the manufacture of flexible electric double-layer capacitors. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 33(8), 905–911. https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2017.1401712
  4. Sultan, S., & Mathew, A. P. (2018). 3D printed scaffolds with gradient porosity based on a cellulose nanocrystal hydrogel. Nanoscale, 10(9), 4421–4431. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7NR08966J
  5. Kim, T., Trangkanukulkij, R., & Kim, W. S. (2018). Nozzle Shape Guided Filler Orientation in 3D Printed Photo-curable Nanocomposites. Nature Scientific Reports, 8(1), 3805. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22107-0
  6. Areir, M., Xu, Y., Zhang, R., Harrison, D., Fyson, J., & Pei, E. (2017). A study of 3D printed active carbon electrode for the manufacture of electric double-layer capacitors. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 25, 351–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JMAPRO.2016.12.020
  7. Areir, M., Xu, Y., Harrison, D., & Fyson, J. (2017). A study of 3D printed flexible supercapacitors onto silicone rubber substrates. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 28(23), 18254–18261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-017-7774-9
  8. Angjellari, M., Tamburri, E., Montaina, L., Natali, M., Passeri, D., Rossi, M., & Terranova, M. L. (2017). Beyond the concepts of nanocomposite and 3D printing: PVA and nanodiamonds for layer-by-layer additive manufacturing. Materials & Design, 119, 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATDES.2017.01.051
  9. Areir, M., Xu, Y., Harrison, D., & Fyson, J. (2017). 3D printing of highly flexible supercapacitor designed for wearable energy storage. Materials Science and Engineering: B, 226, 29–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MSEB.2017.09.004